A systematic review of genome-wide association studies on bladder cancer


Background: Bladder cancer (BC) is the most common cancer of the urinary tract worldwide with over 550,000 new cases each year, bladder cancer has drawn relatively limited research attention and healthcare interventions despite the escalating incidence and mortality rates, particularly in Africa. Historically, the clinical handling of bladder cancer remained largely unchanged for many years. However, novel research initiatives have heralded a fresh epoch in its diagnosis and treatment, fueled by detailed probing of molecular changes. Aim: This study aimed to identify genetic susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer by systematically reviewing previous Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). Methods: In line with this objective, comprehensive literature searches were conducted across PubMed, Google Scholar, and relevant genetic databases, focusing on bladder cancer GWAS studies from 2000 through to November 2022. This systematic review adhered to the robust PRISMA standards. To evaluate the credibility of the studies under scrutiny, the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was employed, further assessing any potential bias risk. Results: The investigation identified chromosome 18q12.3 as the most vulnerable to bladder cancer, revealing four polymorphisms at this locus: rs7238033, rs10775480, rs11082469, and rs17674580. Furthermore, chromosome 5p15.3 emerged as the second most susceptible, with three noted polymorphisms: rs2736098 and two instances of rs401681. Conclusion: Despite these findings, our understanding of genetic predisposition to bladder cancer remains rudimentary, with the majority of substantial data deriving from GWAS. No additional genetic association evidence emerged from this systematic review. Given the relatively minor influence of our current knowledge of genetic susceptibility to bladder cancer on public health, a call for larger cohort studies is necessary. These expanded studies can potentially unveil a broader range of significant polymorphisms across the genome, thereby enhancing our understanding and approach to bladder cancer. Key words: Bladder cancer, Genome-wide association studies (GWAS), polymorphism, systematic review, public health impact.

Competing Interest Statement

The authors have declared no competing interest.

Funding Statement

This study did not receive any funding

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