Prevalence and determinants of non-communicable diseases risk factors among reproductive-aged women of Bangladesh: Evidence from Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey 2017-2018


Introduction Knowing the risk factors like hypertension, overweight/obesity, and smoking status among women of reproductive age could allow the development of an effective strategy for reducing the burden of non-noncommunicable diseases (NCD). We sought to determine the prevalence and determinants of NCD risk factors among Bangladeshi women of reproductive age. Methods This study utilized the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) data from 2017-2018 and analyzed 5,624 women of reproductive age. This nationally representative cross-sectional survey utilized a stratified, two-stage sample of households. Mixed-effects Poisson regression models were fitted to find the adjusted prevalence ratio for smoking, overweight and obesity, and hypertension. Results The average age of 5,624 participants was 31 years (SD=9.07). The prevalence of smoking, overweight/obesity, and hypertension was 9.55%, 31.57%, and 20.27%, respectively. More than one-third of the participants (34.55%) had one NCD risk factor, and 12.51% of participants had two NCD risk factors. Women between 40–49 years had more NCD risk factors than 18–29 years aged women (APR: 2.44; 95% CI: 2.22-2.68). Women with no education (APR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.00-1.33), married (APR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.78–3.04), and widowed/divorced (APR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.59–2.89) were more prevalent in NCD risk factors. Individuals in the Barishal (APR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.28–1.63) division were living with higher risk factors for NCD. Women who belonged to the richest (APR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.60–2.07) wealth quintile were more likely to have the risk factors of NCD. Conclusions This study revealed that older women, currently married and widowed/divorced women, women from the wealthiest socio-economic group, and women with a lower level of education were more likely to have NCD risk factors. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between the geographical division and NCD risk factors. To reduce the future prevalence of NCD, it is necessary to implement effective prevention and control programs that target women with a higher risk of having the disease.

Competing Interest Statement

The authors have declared no competing interest.

Funding Statement

The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.

Author Declarations

I confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.

Not Applicable

The details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:

This study used secondary data from the country representative survey (BDHS 2017-2018). The study protocol for BDHS was approved by the ICF (international institutional review board), and the data is publicly available ( Therefore, no further ethical approval was necessary for this study. However, we received authorization from the DHS to use the datasets.

I confirm that all necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived, and that any patient/participant/sample identifiers included were not known to anyone (e.g., hospital staff, patients or participants themselves) outside the research group so cannot be used to identify individuals.

Not Applicable

I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).

Not Applicable

I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.

Not Applicable

Data Availability

All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

Comments (0)

No login